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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Citing Sources in the Performing Arts

Recordings and Performances in Chicago/Turabian Style

Below, you will see examples of recordings and performances cited in the Chicago/Turabian style. For more information on how to read these examples, see the Getting Started page of this LibGuide (see the tabs to the left.)

 

When citing recordings, they are not included in the bibliography. Instead, they go in a discography, which follows the same format as a bibliography but is specifically for referencing recordings. When citing this type of item, make sure to include:

  1. The name of the composer, writer, performer, or person who made the work
  2. The title of the work, in italics or in quotation marks
  3. Information about the work:
    1. Other performers and contributors
    2. Date and location of the recording session or recorded performance
  4. Information about the publisher, the date of publication, and the label number* for the CD
  5. Information about the medium or format of the recording (CD, DVD, LP, MP3, etc.) as well as how many. For example, 2 compact discs, DVD, or 33 1/3 rpm (for an LP)
  6. URL (for online recordings only)


*A label number is a reference number assigned to a recording by the label. It can usually be found either on the spine of the recording, on the back of the case, or near the barcode. It will usually begin with an abbreviation of the label's name. For example, recordings by Deutsche Grammophon start with DG.

Examples of Recordings and Performances

Example Item


Discography

TEMPLATE:

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Disc. Pertinent information including performers, conductors, ensemble, recording location and date, etc. Label and Label Number, Publication Date. Format.

 

EXAMPLE:

Shostakovich, Dimitri. String Quartet No. 8 in c minor. Performed by the Emerson String Quartet. Aspen Music Festival, July, 1998. Deutsche Grammophon, DG 289 463 284-2, 1999. Compact disc.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of disc, pertinent information including performers, conductors, orchestras,recording location and date, etc, Label and label number, Publication date. Format.

 

EXAMPLE:

1. Dimitri Shostakovich, String Quartet No. 8 in c minor, performed by the Emerson String Quartet at the Aspen Music Festival in July 1998, Deutsche Grammophon, DG 289 463 284-2, 1999, compact disc.


See Also: CMoS 14.263 - Musical Recordings
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words

Example Item


Discography

TEMPLATE:

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Disc. Pertinent information including performers, conductors, ensemble, recording location and date, etc. Label and Label Number, Publication Date. Format.

 

EXAMPLE:

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Conducted by Ferenc Fricsay. Directed by Carl Ebert. Performed with the Chorus and Orchestra of the Deutsche Oper Berlin. Recorded on September 23, 1961. Arthaus Musik, 101 574, 2011. 2 DVDs.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of disc, pertinent information like performers, conductors, ensemble, recording location and date, etc, Label and label number, Publication date. Format.

 

EXAMPLE:

1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Don Giovanni, conducted by Ferenc Fricsay, directed by Carl Ebert, performed with the Chorus and Orchestra of the Deutsche Oper Berlin, recorded on September 23, 1961, Arthaus Musik, 101 574, 2011, 2 DVDs.


See Also: CMoS 14.265 - Video and Film Recordings
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words

Example Item


Discography

TEMPLATE:

Authors. Album Title, Record Label and record number, Year. Format. Link.

 

EXAMPLE:

Lizzo. Special, Nice Life / Atlantic 075678652158, 2022. MP3. https://open.spotify.com/album/1NgFBv1PxMG1zhFDW1OrRr?si=zaSwjgrGQi6CxBiQ9MBKZw.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Authors, “Title of track," format, track number on Author of Album, Album Title, Record Label and number 075678652158, Year. Link.

 

EXAMPLE:

1. Lizzo, “About Damn Time,” MP3 audio, track 1 on Lizzo, Special, Nice Life / Atlantic, 2022. https://open.spotify.com/album/1NgFBv1PxMG1zhFDW1OrRr?si=zaSwjgrGQi6CxBiQ9MBKZw.


See Also: CMoS 14.263 - Musical Recordings
CMoS 14.267 - Videos, podcasts, and other online multimedia
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words

Example Item

For sources that need users to log in to gain access (such as library databases), it is sometimes better to name the database rather than providing a URL. You will need to test the URL while outside of the library network and/or logged out of the database. If the link takes you to a page that is still relevant to the source, feel free to include it; otherwise, list the name of the database instead.


Discography

TEMPLATE:

Author. “Title of video." Information about the video and work. Recorded on Date at Location. Video, duration. Link.

 

EXAMPLE:

Ed Etsten. "The Spirit of Dance: Groundwerx Dance Theatre." Ken Glazebrook/Spirit of Dance. Recorded 1998 at South Yarmouth. Video, 1:00:39. https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/groundwerx-dance-theatre.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Author, “Title of video," information about the video and work, recorded on Date at Location, video, duration, link.

 

EXAMPLE:

1. Ed Etsten, "The Spirit of Dance: Groundwerx Dance Theatre," Ken Glazebrook/Spirit of Dance, recorded 1998 at South Yarmouth, video, 1:00:39, https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/groundwerx-dance-theatre.


See Also: CMoS 14.11 - Library and other bibliographic databases
CMoS 14.265 - Video and Film Recordings
CMoS 14.267 - Videos, podcasts, and other online multimedia
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words

Example Item

When including information about a recording, on YouTube or similar platforms, include information as if it were a recorded DVD or CD. Include what work the performance is part of (if applicable) as well as the performer name(s).


Discography

TEMPLATE:

Author. “Title of video." Information about the video and work. Recorded on Date at Location. Video, duration. Link.

 

EXAMPLE:

Bellini, Vincenzo. “In mia man alfin tu sei.” In Norma. Act 2, Scene 3. Directed by Mario Pontiggia. Conducted by Fabrizio Maria Carminati. Performed with the Orquesta Filarmónica de Gran Canaria, and Coro de la Ópera de las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Recorded on March 9, 2011 at Teatro Perez Galdos. Video, 2:27:27. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kO3xQWhrePE.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Author, “Title of video," information about the video and work, recorded on Date at Location, video, duration, link.

 

EXAMPLE:

1. Vincenzo Bellini, “In mia man alfin tu sei,” in Norma, act 2, scene 3, directed by Mario Pontiggia, conducted by Fabrizio Maria Carminati, performed with the Orquesta Filarmónica de Gran Canaria, and Coro de la Ópera de las Palmas de Gran Canaria, recorded on March 9, 2011 at Teatro Perez Galdos, video, 2:27:27, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kO3xQWhrePE.


See Also: CMoS 14.265 - Video and Film Recordings
CMoS 14.267 - Videos, podcasts, and other online multimedia
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words

Example Item


Discography

TEMPLATE:

Authors, “Title of Episode,” date posted, in title of podcast, podcast, format, duration, URL.

 

EXAMPLE:

Danforth, Mike and Ian Chillag. “Episode 195: F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points.” In How to Do Everything. Podcast. MP3 audio, 18:46. https://howtodoeverything.org/post/117031393215/how-to-find-alternatives-for-the-f-word-cook-your.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Authors, “Title of Episode,” in title of podcast, podcast, format, duration, URL.

 

EXAMPLE:

Mike Danforth and Ian Chillag, “Episode 195: F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points,” April 21, 2015, in How to Do Everything, podcast, MP3 audio, 18:46, https://howtodoeverything.org/post/117031393215/how-to-find-alternatives-for-the-f-word-cook-your.


See Also: CMoS 14.265 - Video and Film Recordings
CMoS 14.267 - Videos, podcasts, and other online multimedia
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words

Example Item

For a live performance, treat it as a recording but do not include information about the publisher or the format of the recording (because there is none!) Remember to provide details about when and where the performance happened.


Discography

Live performances are not included in Chicago/Turabian style discographies.


Endnotes/Footnotes

TEMPLATE:

1. Title of the Performance, Directors, Performance Venue, Location of Venue, Date of Performance.

 

EXAMPLE:

1. Because I Am Your Queen (a feminist fantasia), Mina Samuels, dir. Barbara Pitts McAdams, Krannert Center for the Performing Arts, Urbana, IL, April 2, 2019.


See Also: CMoS 14.266 - Live Performances
CMoS 14.265 - Video and Film Recordings
LibGuide - Titles of Works and Non-English Words