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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Writing Citations in Music

Chicago Style

In the system favored by many writers in the humanities, bibliographic citations are provided in notes, preferably supplemented by a bibliography. The notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, are usually numbered and correspond to superscript note reference numbers in the text.

The University of Illinois has multiple copies of the most recent edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. This guide provides links to the online version (requires log-in with your NetID), but the University Library has multiple copies in their reference sections at multiple libraries. Section numbers are the same between the online and physical versions.

Footnotes & Endnotes

What are Footnotes and Endnotes?

Footnotes and Endnotes are comments inserted into your text that can provide citations or further commentary on a topic. These are both marked with a number inside of the text and point to text either at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of a chapter or book (endnotes). Using Microsoft Word, you can easily insert footnotes or endnotes into your papers.

How to Insert Footnotes and Endnotes

In MS Word, select "References" from the top banner menu and click "Insert Footnote"


A bibliography is a list of works that have been cited in your paper or that you read during the writing process. It takes the form of a list at the end of the work that is in alphabetical order. This will be formatted with an hanging indent.


To properly format your bibliography, you'll need to use hanging indents (this indents any lines after the first line of each individual citation). 

In Microsoft Word, choose Home > Paragraph > Indentation > Special: Hanging