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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Citing Online Advertising & Business Sources in APA: PrivCo

This guide is intended to help Advertising students cite a variety of sources in Advertising and Business databases and industry resources using APA style.


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Communications Library
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Using PrivCo

When following the PrivCo link through the library website or this LibGuide, you will see a log in page. Underneath the log in username and password boxes, there is a blue link that says "create an academic account." Follow this link and fill in the required fields to create your account. Be sure to access this page through the library website so you can get an authentication code for the student account, and use your Illinois email address when making the account. Once you have created an account, you can access company profiles and details for privately held companies.

Citing Company Profiles in PrivCo

Citation Example: Company Profile

Name of Author Organization. (Date). Title of company profile [Company profile]. Retrieved date, from URL

PrivCo Media Inc. (n.d.). Bloomberg L.P [Company profile]. Retrieved November 15, 2020, from

PrivCo Media Inc. (n.d.). Barracuda Networks, Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved November 15, 2020, from


Date Element: Since PrivCo does not provide any indication of the date in which the profile was updated, it is best to use n.d. in your citation. The retrieval date will give your instructor an idea of how recent the information is. Also, you include retrieval dates if the source material may change over time.

Database Information: The URL is given to provide direct access back to a source when someone is reviewing the references list. Since copying the URL from PrivCo will not link someone back directly to the same company profile since each user is required to have an account, APA recommends providing the general link to the login page of a database. You would include database information in the citation because the information cited in PrivCo is not widely available in other databases, otherwise you would not include database information.