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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Ibadi Islam: History

This LibGuides serves as an overview of Ibadi Islam and provides resources and information for further academic research and study in this field.

Ibadism in Tunisia

Majority of Tunisian Ibadites live on the Tunisia island Djerba

Religions/Tunisia: LookLex Encyclopedia

تاريخ جربة وعلمائها 

Ibadism in Algeria

Ibadites primarily live in the M'zab Valley of Algeria.

Religion Algeria: Wikipedia

Ibadites in the M'zab Valley: Wikipedia

M'zab Valley: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland

Rustamid Dynasty: Encyclopedia Britannica

Ibadism in Libya

Brief History of Ibadi Islam

Ibadism is one of the main sects of Islam along with Sunni and Shi'i Islam.  Ibadi Islam emerged around 20-60 years after Prophet Muhammad's death in 632 AD.

Ibadism, a distinct sect of Islam that is neither Sunni nor Shi‘i, exists mainly in Oman, East Africa, the Mzab valley of Algeria, the Nafus mountains of Libya, and the island of Jerba in Tunisia.  The sect developed out of the seventh-century Islamic sect known as the Khawarij, and shares with that group the desire to found a righteous Muslim society and the belief that true Muslims are only to be found in their own sect.  Ibadis refer to themselves as “the Muslims” or “the people of straightness” (ahl al-istiqama).  Nonetheless, Ibadis see themselves as quite different from Khawarij. - Valerie Hoffman, An Introduction

For more information on the History of Ibadi Islam you can look at the UIUC Library Resources as well as the following sources:

Ibadi Islam: An Introduction - Valerie Hoffman

Ahmed Souaiaia: History and Origins

LookLex Encyclopedia: Ibadi

Wikipedia: Ibadi - History

Journal Articles on Ibadi History:

Information on the historical Ibadi Dynasties:

  • Rustamid (776-909): Algeria

Where is Ibadi Islam practiced?


Ibadi - Doctrine

Kitab al-Istiqama - Muhammad ibn Sa'id Kadami

Doctrinal Differences with other denominations: Wikipedia

  • only Ibadi Muslims will be allowed into Paradise
  • Muslims will not see God on the Day of Judgment
  • whoever enters Hell will stay there forever
  • the Quran was created by God at a certain point in time
  • It is unnecessary to have one leader for the entire Muslim world, and if no single leader is fit for the job then Muslim communities can rule themselves. This is different from both the Sunni belief of Caliphate and the Shi'ite belief of Imamah
  • It is not necessary for the ruler of the Muslims to be descended from the Quraysh tribe, which was the tribe of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. This is different from both Shi'ites as well as a majority of Sunnis

Ibadi Doctrine and Berber Identity - Mohamad Ballan

Ibn Sallam al-Ibadi - Kitab fihi bad' al-Islam wa shara'i al-din