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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Resources for the study of the Azerbaijani language

Introduction to the Azerbaijani Language

The Peace Corps has an online Azerbaijani language guide with lessons in the alphabet and letter sounds, as well as grammar.  Click on the image below to follow the link.

Phonetics of Azerbaijani

There are 9 vowels and 23 consonants phoneme (26 consonants) in the Azerbaijani language. Vowels are divided into hard and soft, labializing and non- labializing, closed and open, pre-tongue, mid tongue and post tongue groups. But for quantity is divided into three groups simple, long and short:
1. Hard vowels: a, u, o, ı
2. Soft vowels,: ə, e, ö, ü, i
3. Labializing vowels: o, u, ö, ü
4. Non-labializing vowels: a, e, ə, i, ı
5. Pre-tongue vowels: ə, i, e, ü
6. Mid-tongue vowel: e
7. Post-tongue vowels: a, i, o, u
8. Closed vowels: u, ü, ı, i, e
9. Open vowels: o, ö, a, ə

Dialect and Accents

Dialects and accents of modern Azerbaijani language

Classification of dialect and accents of Azerbaijani language, mainly was carried out on geographical features: 1) eastern group dialect and accents (Baku, Guba, Shamakhy dialects and Lankaran, Mughan accents); 2) western group dialect and accents (Ganja, Gazakh, Garabagh dialects and  ayrım accent); 3) northern group dialect and accents (Sheki dialect, Zaqatala-Gakh accent); 4) southern group dialect  and accents (Nakhchıvan, Ordubad dialects).
These dialect and accents are differ from Azerbaijani literary language and as well as each from other by its some features.

I. Eastern group
1. a~e replacement: qaymaq~qeymağ, qayçı~qeyçi; 2. a~o replacement: baba~boba; barmaq~bormağ;  3. o~u replacement: qoşun-quşun; 4. ö~ü replacement: çörək-çürek; 5.after palatal vowels labial, after labial vowels palatal: bacun, aton, gəlsön, alson; 6. Sağır nun (η) sound is not used; 7. Consonant  y inside of word is replaced with  g consonant: dügmə, ignə, igid, sögüd; 8. harmony of vowels violated: qaraçi, qeytan, oxıdi; 9. Suffixes, mainly are two option (labial option): gəlübdü, alıbdu, əkdüz; 10. At negative of indefinite future tense –man, -mən, -mar, -mər suffixes are used: almanam, gəlmənəm, qaçmarsan, almarsuz və s. 11. Specific words belonging to this group shows itself: tuğ-bayraq, xır-bostan, qəmbər-çay daşı, uruğ-nəsil, meşmeşi-ərik.

II.  Western group:
1.ə~a –xavar; 2. i~ı – qıymat; 3. wide using of sağır nun (η) sound: maηa, saηa; 4. b~v-bava, çovan; 5. c~j- bajı, qoja; 6. Vowels get voiceless at end of words- papax, kəlməx; 7. b~f – bava, çovan; 8. v~y buzoy, toyla; 9. labial harmony is strong: görmöyüf, qurumuyuf; 10. In accusative case words ending with vowels get - yı suffix: qapıyı, quzuyu; 11. present tense suffixes: -er, -or, - ör, aler, quror, görör; 12. Specific words: gap eləmək, şennix-kənd, qəlbi-hündür, ayıbalası-çiy kərpic, sorux-döşəkağı və s.

III. Northern group:
1.ə~e- eyləş, bey; 2. Sound sağır nun (η) is going off; some suffixes do not get under harmony: beşlıx, getmax; 3. presence of special pronouns: habu, hu, hunda, mā, sā, mağa, sağa; 4. Present tense: gələ durur, baxa durur; 5. 2nd part of II type defining word combination used without relation suffix: göz ağrı, baş ağrı, menin göz; 6. specific words: tabun, şaqqa- ailə, əqraba, şəhrə-məhəllə, palankeş-süzgəc, ataqar-meşə, quştuqur-pəhləvan  

IV. Southern group:
1.ə is pronounced very open: əv, həylə; 2. a~ə: əyax, qərə, dəğ, bəğ; 3. e~ə: pənir, səvgi, dəyil; 4. x~h: horuz, hurcun; 5. Forms of present tense: -iy, - iri: gəliy, gediri, seviri; 6. Specific words: qəzilləməx` - aldatmaq, mavrı-pişik balası, mayıf-şikəst, xudrı-boş və s.

Dictionaries

Online Azeri dictionaries & phrasebooks:

http://azerdict.com
http://www.polyglot.az


The alphaDictionary includes basic grammar resources as well as dictinaries.

Subject Guide

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Slavic Reference Service
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