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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Hazmat Resources: REMM

First Responder Overview

Geared toward first responders in the field, this section of REMM provides links for

  • general information
  • personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • casualty management
  • protective action guides
  • triage in the field
  • HazMat
  • online training courses.

Patient Management Algorithms

These algorithms allow users to explore the steps and levels within radiological contamination and/or exposure evaluation procedures.

Suggested Guidelines

REMM provides a variety guidelines for emergency personnel responding to a radiological event.

About REMM

Created by the Department of Health and Human Services, Radiation Emergency Medical Management (REMM) provides guidance for health care providers, primarily physicians, about clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury during radiological and nuclear emergencies.

REMM provides just-in-time, evidence-based, usable information with sufficient background and context to make complex issues understandable to those without formal radiation medicine expertise. REMM's web-based content is also available for computer and mobile download so it can be accessed without an Internet connection.

Site content includes:

  • Radiation principles (e.g., exposure vs. contamination)
  • Patient management algorithms
  • Related procedures, assessments, and countermeasures
  • A multimedia library with illustrations, animations and photos depicting radiation concepts, decontamination, radiation contamination and safety, personal protective equipment (PPE), clinical pictures, radiation control zones, radiological dispersal and radiological exposure devices (RDDs and REDS) and video tutorials.


Radiation Dose Estimators

 REMM provides 3 biodosimetry tools to help responders estimate a radiation dose. These dose estimators are accompanied by a video tutorial.

1. Time of Onset Vomiting

The amount, severity and time to onset of vomiting are related to the dose received, the dose rate, and what parts of the body (or the whole body) were irradiated. is directly connected to an absorbed radiation dose. In general, the higher the radiation dose absorbed, the greater the severity of symptoms and the more rapid onset of vomiting. For more information, please visit this calculator's information page.

2. Lymphocyte Depletion Kinetics

Using this estimator, the absolute lymphocyte count is calculated and tracked over time. Absolute lymphocyte counts are the sume of all types of circulating lymphocytes. The magnitude, rate, and nadir of peripheral blood absoltue lymphocyte depletion are correlated with dose. For more in-depth information, please visit this calculator's information page.

3. Dicentric Chromosome Assay

Radiation exposure causes DNA strand breaks, in particularly double strand breaks. During repair of DNA breaks, misrepair of 2 chromosomes and abnormal chromosome replication can lead to dicentric chromosomes. Increases in radiation dose produce increasing numbers of dicentric chromosomes. Although radiation induces many types of chromosomal changes in addition to dicentric chromosomes, dicentrics are considered the most sensitive and most specific for assessing radiation dose. For more in-depth information, please visit this calculator's information page.


REMM hosts a dictionary of radiation terms. Additional dictionaries and glossaries from organizations such as the Department of Health and Human Services, the CDC, the EPA, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission are also provided.

Downloads and Apps

In addition to online accessibility, REMM is also available as a download or mobile application.