"International aid, or official development assistance (ODA), comprises a wide range of financial and nonfinancial components. These may take the form of cash transfers as well as grants of machinery, technical advice, and analysis and assistance in capacity-building support. Although foreign aid is often envisaged as transferring resources from rich to poor countries, the reality is more complex, with more than half of all ODA actually going to middle-income countries..... Resources alone will not be sufficient to ensure that poverty goals are met."
"International remittances, the sums of money and goods that immigrants send home, have recently captured the attention of bankers, economists, and policymakers. Previously, little effort was expended to measure and analyze these flows because they were thought to be small in magnitude and of little significance for most countries. Evidence to the contrary has motivated policymakers and others to pay closer attention to the measurement, determinants, and impact of remittances."
"To a significant extent, studies of global inequality have focused on measuring the evolution of convergence and divergence between nations. Among these studies, most agree that a large gap between rich and poor nations became evident by the late nineteenth century, and continued to grow at least until roughly the middle of the twentieth century. There is less agreement about the evolution of trends after the mid-twentieth century, and about the key processes shaping inequality between nations."
"Prevailing concerns about economic inequity in the world reflect many aspects of living standards and how they are distributed, and no single measure can hope to capture all those concerns. As conventionally measured, “inequality” and “poverty” are quite different aspects of income distribution, in that the former focuses on the (absolute or relative) disparities in income (or consumption), while the latter focuses on absolute levels of deprivation, which depend on the average levels of living in society as well as inequality."
Bourguignon, François, Ferreria, Francisco, Milanovic, Branko, and Ravallion, Martin. "global income inequality." In The Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy, edited by Kenneth A. Reinert, and Ramkishen S. Rajan. Princeton University Press, 2010.
"Since the 1970s the global economy has entered a period of accelerated globalization. This has been facilitated by policies of economic liberalization, pioneered initially in Chile under the military dictator (and geographer) Augusto Pinochet, and subsequently adopted by the governments of Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States, and by the international financial institutions of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund through their structural adjustment programs (SAPs). These SAPs sought to bid wages down to their supposed market clearing level—to make them low enough to encourage employers to mop up unemployment; however, there are physiological limits to treating labor as a commodity, as workers must be able to afford to eat. "