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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Bibliography Help: APA Electronic/Online

Uni students are often asked to complete papers and projects that require using and citing resources created by others. Use these resources to make your job easier.


Disclaimer: This handout is only meant as a guide. If we tried to cover all citations you might make, we’d have a book—which is exactly what the American Psychological Association (APA) publishes every couple of years. You should check the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, if you have a question that this guide doesn’t answer. See the library for a copy (call number 029 Am4p2010 in the reference section).

Formatting your citations: In making your list of works cited, begin each entry flush with the left margin; if the entry runs more than a line long, the next lines should be indented five spaces, or one default TAB setting if you are using a word processor. On many word processors you can also accomplish this by paragraph formatting for a "hanging indent." (Whichever you choose, be consistent throughout.) Use double spacing for your entire list, both between and within entries.

If you will be publishing your own bibliography on a web page, it may be difficult to indent properly. To deal with this, it's common to use bullets in front of each citation instead of indenting.

Websites and Blogs


  • LastName, FirstInitial. (Date of publication). Title of web page: Subtitle of web page. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY, from Name of Publisher website: URL
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (2009). University Laboratory High School: Student profile. Retrieved September 24, 2009, from
  • Miltonfest, J. (1998). Judy's home page. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from
  • Canadian Tourism Department. (2007). Visit Canada today. Retrieved from



  • LastName, FirstInitial. (YYYY, Month, DD). Title of post [Web log message]. Retrieved from Title of Blog: URL
  • franceylibrarian. (2009, September 14). Serious about manga [Web log message]. Retrieved from Gargoyles Loose in the Library:

Articles Online

Article from an Online Reference Source


  • Lastname, Firstinitial (if given). (YYYY). Article title. In Title of encyclopedia. Publisher. Retrieved Date, from URL.
  • Clarke, M., & Clarke, D. (Eds.). (n.d.). Cubism. In The concise Oxford dictionary of art terms. Retrieved from
  • Magnetic mirror. (2009). World book. Retrieved September 24, 2009, from

Articles from online databases (like Academic Search Premier or LexisNexis)

These are usually articles from journals, magazines, or newspapers that can be accessed over the Web using a database such as LexisNexis, Wilson Select Plus, or Academic Search Premier.

  • Lastname, Firstinital. (Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume (number), page numbers [if available]. Retrieved from database URL [or doi].
  • Kruesi, L. (2009, November). What do we really know about dark matter? Astronomy, 37(11), 28-33. Retrieved from
  • Harper, J. (2008, February 22). 'Barack' poised to rise on list of baby names; Obama inspires some parents-to-be. The Washington Times, p. A04. Retrieved from
  • Han, Y.-Y., Kano, H., Davis, D. L., Niranjan, A., & Lunsford, L. D. (2009, September). Cell phone use and acoustic neuroma: The need for standardized questionnaires and access to industry data. Surgical Neurology, 72, 216-222. doi:10.1016/j.surneu.2009.01.010

Articles from online magazines, journals, and newspapers

These are journals, magazines, and newspapers that are published directly on the web. Articles obtained directly from the web site of a magazine, journal, or newspaper are cited differently than articles you find in article databases like EBSCO and Lexis-Nexis (which include articles from many different publications).

  • Lastname, Firstinitial. (Pub. Date).  Title of article.  Magazine Title, volume, pp-pp. Retrieved from URL
  • Eyre, J. (2005). How to handle an insane mistress. Governess Journal, 2, 120-127. Retrieved from
  • Lennox, M. (2006). The social ramifications of gowing up with only an uncle. Children’s Literature Characters Study Themselves, 9, 15-18. Retrieved from
  • Harry, D. (2007). Movies I love. Movie Characters Speak. Retrieved from
  • Grossman, L. (2007, September 8). The quest for cool. Time. Retrieved from
  • Weintraub, E. (2006, August 22). Adding history to island’s Heritage Trail. Vineyard      Gazette. Retrieved from
  • Cooke, J. (2009, September 16). Almost quarter of Class of 2010 named National Merit Semifinalists. The Online Gargoyle. Retrieved from


Letters to the editor from online newspapers

If the name of the letter-writer is given, include it. If not, don't. These are letters written to newspapers by ordinary folks (and sometimes by famous ones) who want to make their opinion heard.


  • Lastname, FirstInitial. (Date of publication). Title of Letter if available [Letter to the editor]. Periodical Title. Retrieved from URL
  • Wiggins, E. (2006, September 19). Brotherly rule [Letter to the editor]. Intergalactic Times. Retrieved from
  • Brotherly rule [Letter to the editor]. (2006, September 19). Intergalactic Times. Retrieved from


These can be reviews of books, movies, theater shows, and the like.

  • Lastname, FirstInitial. (Date of Review). Title of Review if possible. [Review of the ItemType Item Title]. Review Publication's Title. Retrieved from URL