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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Gray Literature in Health and Biomedical Sciences: Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence Based Practice - CA

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH)

The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) provides decision-makers with the evidence, analysis, advice, and recommendations they require to make informed decisions in health care. 

Canadian Medical Association

The Canadian Medical Association is a national, voluntary association of physicians that advocates on behalf of its members and the public for access to high quality health care, and provides leadership and guidance to physicians.

CMA Infobase

Clinical Practice Guidelines

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CMA Publications

CMAF Open - CMA's new online open-access journal publishing high-quality medical and health research.

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

The CRD databases include DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), NHS EED (NHS Economic Evaluation Database), and HTA (Health Technology Assessments).


  • Over 20,000 quality assessed systematic reviews
  • Over 13,000 economic evaluations
  • Over 12,000 summaries of completed and ongoing health technology assessments
  • Summaries of all Cochrane reviews and protocols

SUBJECTS: Biomedical and Health Sciences

SEARCH using MeSH subject headings


  • Links to PubMed
  • RSS feeds


  • DARE - DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) is focused primarily on systematic reviews that evaluate the effects of health care interventions and the delivery and organisation of health services.  The database also includes reviews of the wider determinants of health such as housing, transport, and social care where these impact directly on health, or have the potential to impact on health.

  • HTA Database - The focus of the HTA database is on completed and ongoing health technology assessments from around the world. The HTA database is a valuable source for identifying grey literature as much of the information it contains is generally only available directly from individual funding agencies.  Database content is supplied by the 52 members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) and 20 other HTA organisations around the world. Details of other on-going systematic reviews are also registered on the HTA database. All new content is checked, proof read and published on the database by the in house team at CRD. The scope for inclusion is broad, encompassing any study designated as a health technology assessment by the contributing organisation.

  • NHS EED - NHS EED (NHS Economic Evaluation Database) focuses primarily on the economic evaluation of health care interventions and aims to help decision makers interpret an increasingly complex and technical literature. Economic evaluations are studies in which a comparison of two or more interventions or care alternatives is undertaken and in which both the costs and outcomes of the alternatives are examined. This includes cost-benefit analyses, cost-utility analyses, and cost-effectiveness analyses.

Evidence for Policy and Practice Informtion (UK)

EPPI Centre Evidence Library

Based in London, the EPPI-Centre conducts systematic reviews of research evidence across a range of different topic areas and provides support for others who are undertaking systematic reviews or using research evidence. Systematic reviews include the fields of Education, including Initial Teacher Education (ITE), Health Promotion and Public Health, as well as social welfare and international development.


  • By Subject - The Knowledge Pages enable access to the key messages about a specific subject area, e.g. obesity. These key messages are drawn from the total knowledge base within the EPPI-Centre and may come from multiple reviews.
  • By Title - The Chronological List is a complete list of all EPPI-Centre reviews, and is in alphabetical order within each year.

EPPI Centre Databases

   BiblioMap, the EPPI-Centre database of health promotion research, has been compiled over a number of years as a result of searching and coding    research for inclusion in systematic reviews. It contains approximately 14,400 records at present and is being added to each time a systematic review is completed.

The Database of Promoting Health Effectiveness Reviews (DoPHER) is a specialised register of health promotion reviews.  It currently contains over  3,000 reviews, identified in the following ways:

     ---as a result of conducting systematic reviews within the EPPI-Centre.
      ---searches of several external sources are carried out to locate reviews.

Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI)

The Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) is a web-based database of randomised controlled trials and controlled trials  (non-randomised) of Public Health and Health Promotion interventions. It currently contains over 6,000 trials, identified in the following ways: 

  • as a result of conducting systematic reviews within the EPPI-Centre. 
  • as a result of quarterly sensitive searches from August 2004. 
  • as the official register of the former Cochrane Health Promotion and Public Health field, it has been updated with studies forwarded by members of the field.

More databases...