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Current Member States & Accession Year
- Austria - 1995
- Belgium - 1958
- Bulgaria - 2007
- Croatia - 2013
- Cyprus - 2004
- Czechia - 2004
- Denmark - 1973
- Estonia - 2004
- Finland - 1995
- France - 1958
- Germany - 1958
- Greece - 1981
- Hungary - 2004
- Ireland - 1973
- Italy - 1958
- Latvia - 2004
- Lithuania - 2004
- Luxembourg - 1958
- Malta - 2004
- Netherlands - 1958
- Poland - 2004
- Portugal - 1986
- Romania - 2007
- Slovakia - 2004
- Slovenia - 2004
- Spain - 1986
- Sweden - 1995
A Brief Timeline of European Union History and Accession
The European Union is an organization that unites 27 European countries through common laws, economics, and security. The EU traces its origins to the desire for solidarity in the aftermath of World War II.
- 1949: Establishment of the first pan-European organization, the Council of Europe, by founding members Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
- 1950s: Establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Member states of these three organizations include Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
- 1960s: European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is created
- 1967: The Merger Treaty is signed to combine three organizations - ECSC, EEC, and Euratom - into the European Communities.
- 1973: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Communities
- 1981: Greece joins the European Communities
- 1986: Spain and Portugal join the European Communities
- 1993: The European Union is born through the Treaty of Maastricht
- 1994: The European Economic Area (EEA) is created
- 1995: Austria, Finland, and Sweden join the European Union
- 1997: The Treaty of Amsterdam lays plans to give Europe a stronger voice in the world and devote more resources to employment and the rights of citizens
- 1999: The Euro is introduced
- 2003: Treaty of Nice comes into force, reforming institutions so the EU can function efficiently after reaching 25 member countries and prepare for the next major group of new members joining
- 2004: Czechia, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia join the European Union
- 2007: Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union
- 2013: Croatia joins the EU
- 2016: United Kingdom votes to leave EU
Case Study Resources: Cyprus
The Europeanization of Cyprus by
Drawing from rationalist and constructivist approaches The Europeanization of Cyprus identifies mechanisms and processes of Europeanization and examines their impact on the following key dimensions of Cyprus: executive, legislative and judicial authorities; political parties and public opinion; economy; agriculture and regional policy; foreign policy; and justice and home affairs. It also assesses how the territorial and temporal dimensions of the country have mediated the impact of these mechanisms and processes, and ultimately shaped the country's Europeanization experience. The book provides a deep understanding of the relations between Cyprus and the EU, while also enhancing our theoretical understanding of the impact of Europeanization on states, whether inside or outside the EU.
Call Number: Online Resource
Publication Date: 2008-01-01
EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution by
Since 1993, the European Commission, EU member states and the Republic of Cyprus have raised the expectation that the prospect of Cyprus' EU membership would act as a catalyst for a settlement of the island's conflict. Yet the divisions between the positions of the principal parties widened and the 1990s witnessed an escalation of tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean. Thereafter, despite the re-launch of the peace process in 2002-2004, the divided island joined the EU on 1 May 2004. This study analyzes the case of Cyprus and the EU. It explores the interrelationship between the evolution of the conflict and the development of EU-Cyprus relations within the accession process; it explains the factors driving the conduct of EU policies towards the conflict; and it demonstrates that the EU framework could have added important incentives for a resolution of the conflict by providing an alternative context within which to address the basic needs of the principal parties.
Call Number: 956.9304 T561e
Publication Date: 2004-11-28
EU Accession and UN Peacemaking in Cyprus by
This work traces the attempts by the United Nations to bring about the reunification of Cyprus prior to the island's accession to the European Union on 1 May 2004. In addition to charting the course of previous efforts to solve the Cyprus issue, the book recounts the direct discussions between the two sides from January 2002 through to April 2004 and analyses the reasons why the UN plan was rejected in a referendum.
Call Number: 341.235693 K45e
Publication Date: 2005-08-10
Case Study Resources: Greece
Public Discourses and Attitudes in Greece During the Crisis by
This book presents the findings of new empirical research regarding shifts in public discourses and attitudes in Greek society as a result of the crisis. These findings have shown different shades of Euroscepticism and anti-German sentiments, but they have also revealed a normative conflict within Greek society itself. The book shows how economic crises and strict policy conditionality, causing or deepening economic recession in the countries receiving it, has the potential to set in motion a fragmentation process, which transcends standard material stratification and relates to broader political and even cultural rifts among the population. With this, the book serves as a case study of the impact of wider pressures and shifts weighing upon the European Union (EU) and the way European societies perceive the integration process. This text will be of key interest to scholars and students of EU politics, Greek and Southern European studies and more broadly to cultural and comparative politics and political economy and European politics.
Call Number: HB3807.5 .P83 2020
Publication Date: 2019-12-17
Europeanizing Greece by
Europeanizing Greece serves as a perceptive case study of the EU's continual enlargement and resulting regional challenges.
Call Number: Online Resource
Publication Date: 2017-09-11
Who's to Blame for Greece? by
Praise for the first edition: 'The new book by Michael Mitsopoulos and Theodore Pelagidis offers insightful analysis of the Greek drama. It makes fascinating reading and well demonstrates that the blame is widely shared.' André Sapir, University Professor, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and former Economic Advisor to the President of the European Commission 'Who is to blame for Greece? If I could pick just two experts on the Greek debacle to answer this question it would be Theodore Pelagidis and Michael Mitsopoulos. And thankfully they have done just that in this penetrating analysis of what has happened to Greece over the past five years. It's a timely and incisive work and no one gets off easy a must read.' Landon Thomas, Jr, Financial Reporter, New York Times, USA This expanded and enlarged second edition of Theodore Pelagidis and Michael Mitsopoulos' popular Who's to Blame for Greece? (2016) reviews Greece's economy since its accession to the Monetary Union, with new research focusing on the perils of the populist Syrizia government during the critical 'Grexit' period of 2015-2016. The authors also focus on political developments since that time and in particular propose a new form of taxation as well as explore debt sustainability in relation to Greece's economic challenges. This book will appeal to researchers, practitioners and policy makers interested in the EU and the political economy of Greece and offers valuable updates on the first edition.
Call Number: Online Resource
Publication Date: 2018-01-31