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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

European Union Enlargement: Potential Member States

This topical guide explores the history and process of accession, enlargement, and integration to the European Union.

Candidate States

  • Albania - applied 2009, candidate since 2014
  • The Republic of North Macedonia - candidate since 2005
  • Montenegro - applied 2008, candidate since 2010
  • Serbia - applied 2009, candidate since 2014
  • Turkey - candidate since 1999

Potential Candidate States

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Kosovo*

Recent Applicants

  • Ukraine - 2022
  • Georgia - 2022
  • Moldova - 2022

Map Indicating Candidate, Potential Candidate, and Appliant States to the EU

EU-candidate countries map

Case Study Resources: Turkey

Case Study Resources: Ukraine