An abstract is a summary of the article, and will give you an idea of what the article is about and how it will be written. If there are lots of complicated subject-specific words in the abstract, the article will be just as hard to read.
This is where the author will repeat all of their ideas and their findings. Some authors even use this section to compare their study to others. By reading this, you will notice a few things you missed, and will get another overview of the content.
This is usually where the author will lay out their plan for the article and describe the steps they will take to talk about their topic. By reading this, you will know what parts of the article will be most relevant to your topic!
These are called topic sentences, and will usually introduce the idea for the paragraph that follows. By reading this, you can make sure that the paragraph has information relevant to your topic before you read the entire thing.
Now that you have gathered the idea of the article through the abstract, conclusion, introduction, and topic sentences, you can read the rest of the article!
To review: Abstract → Conclusion → Introduction → Topic Sentences → Entire Article
There are several citation formats, APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most common. For most of your Rhetoric classes you will be using MLA style. The infograph below will provide you with information for creating citations in MLA format. For information on citing in APA or Chicago style, see the Cite Your Sources link below.
MLA (Modern Language Association)
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal. Volume, issue, year, pages.
"Title of webpage." Title of entire site. Distributor of website. Date published. URL (without http://)
(Author, Page Number)
"MLA Style." Purdue OWL Online Writing. Purdue University, 2016.
Learn more at Purdue OWL
There are three ways you can integrate sources into your paper.
For more information and to see examples of how to integrate sources, see the Integrate Sources Into Your Paper link below.
Plagiarism is using the words or ideas of another as if they were your own. It can be an intentional or unintentional act, but either way there can be severe consequences. The information below will help you understand and avoid plagiarism.
The following are all examples of plagiarism:
Often one of the most difficult aspects of writing a paper is knowing how to properly integrate your sources into your paper. Many cases of plagiarism are unintentional and happen because the writer is unaware of how to properly incorporate and cite sources in the text of a paper. The following steps can help you make certain you have all the information you need to compile proper citations.
More specific guidelines and information to help you recognize and avoid plagiarism are available on the following pages:
Plagiarism is taking someone else's ideas or published information and using it in your own writing as if it was your own. When you cite someone, you are acknowledging you have used the information created by someone else in your work.
Plagiarism is stealing. When you plagiarize, you are denying an author rightful credit for their work. In other words, you are stealing.
Plagiarism is dishonest. Plagiarism is a form of lying--you are passing off someone else's work as your own.
Plagiarism goes against academic integrity. In the academic world, scholars abide by "academic integrity." This means they agree to share their work under the condition that they receive credit for their original work and scholarship.
Don't submit someone else's work as your own. This includes friends as well as information you find on the Internet or in a library.
Always cite your sources. This lets your audience know where you got your information. If you don't cite, you're submitting someone else's work as your own.
Ideas from someone else have to be either paraphrased (rephrased in your own words) and cited; summarized and cited; or quoted and cited. See the difference between quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing.
Your instructor and/or an academic committee may look into any suspicions of plagiarism or cheating. If the accusations turn out to be true, the University of Illinois' Student Code states that you could face:
Don't panic! Yes, you have to cite. But we can help! Check out our citation guide: guides.library.illinois.edu/citingsources