Skip to Main Content

University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ESL Undergraduate Student Guide

A guide to support international students in ESL 112 and 115 and beyond.

Citing Your Sources

Citing your sources properly will help you avoid plagiarism. The information on this page will help you do just that. 

Writing Help Resources

APA Citations

There are several citation formats, APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most common. For your ESL classes you will be using APA style. The guide below will provide you with information for creating citations in APA format.

APA: Quick Guide

APA (American Psychological Association)

*Use hanging indentation after the first row of text if reference is multiple rows of text long.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. DOI (if available)

Journal Articles

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.


Author, A. A., & Author, B.B. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. Name of Website. URL

In Text

(Author Last Name, Year of Publication, p. #)

Learn More

Purdue Online Writing Lab: APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

Integrate Sources Into Your Paper

There are three ways you can integrate sources into your paper.

  1. Quote: Any time you use the exact wording found in a source it needs to be "quoted." Use only when the source has written something in an interesting or distinctive way.
  2. Paraphrase: Paraphrasing puts an excerpt from a source into your own words, rephrasing but not shortening it. Paraphrase when a quote won’t quite fit into the grammar or tone of your own writing.
  3. Summarize: Summarizing boils a text down to its essential points. It is especially useful for incorporating other authors’ big ideas without sacrificing too much space in your own writing. 

For more information and to see examples of how to integrate sources, see the Integrate Sources Into Your Paper link below.