Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with symptoms generally lasting longer than 6 months. According to the Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, schizophrenia is "a disorder or group of disorders whose symptoms include disturbances in thinking, emotional responsiveness, and behavior." Schizophrenia is associated with "abnormalities of brain structure and function, disorganized speech and behavior, delusions, and hallucinations." DSM-IV: 295.90 ICD-10: F20.9
Other psychotic disorders include:
Schizoaffective disorder: symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder such as depression or bipolar disorder
Schizophreniform disorder: symptoms of schizophrenia that last between 1-6 months DSM-IV: 295.40 ICD-10: F20.81
Brief psychotic disorder: symptoms of psychosis that occurs in a sudden, short period of time, usually in response to a traumatic or emotional event DSM-IV: 298.8 ICD-10: F23
Although schizophrenia is statistically rare, schizophrenia is one of the most portrayed mental illness in pop culture.
Statistics from the World Health Organization-Schizophrenia Fact Sheet