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When appraising evidence at any level--but particularly those on the lower half of the 4s Pyramid--you must ask questions to determine the usefulness of the evidence, particularly in terms of validity and importance.
Is the Study Valid?
- Is there a clear, defined research question?
- Was the study "blinded"?
- Was the test evaluated?
- Are the methods clear?
- Is the study reproducible?
- What were the outcome measures?
- Are studies consistent in systematic review?
Are the Results Important?
- Is the evidence relevant to your question?
- Is the methods section clear?
- In a systematic review, are individual studies considered for validity?
- Are studies consistent?
- How precise are results?
- Are results statistically significant?