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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

The Transformation of the Middle East, 1566-1914 (HIST 335): Ottoman Countries

A LibGuide for Professor Cuno's HIST 335 course on the Ottoman Empire and Middle East.

The Levant

Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant, usually defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains. Comprised of the Eyalets of Aleppo, Damascus, Tripoli, Acre and Gaza depicted in the 1851 map below.


Palestine: Ottoman Rule

The Ottoman Empire, Zionism, and the Question of Palestine (1880-1908) - Mim Kemal Oke


Syria: Early History and the Ottoman Empire

State and Society in Ottoman Syria


History of Lebanon under Ottoman Rule

Beirut: Ottoman Rule

The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon 1861-1920

National Archives of Lebanon (Arabic)


Jordan: History: The Ottoman Empire (government website)

The Ottoman Hajj Route in Jordan: Motivation and Ideology - Andrew Petersen


Egypt Eyalet 1609


Flag of Ottoman Egypt 1793-1844

Ottoman Egypt

The Ottomans captured Egypt between 1511-1520 under Selim I and ruled the area from 1517-1798 and again from 1801-1914.

  • Egypt Eyalet (1517–1867), a state under direct rule of the Ottoman Empire
  • Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914), an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire

Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798 by Michael Winters

The Cambridge History of Egypt

Egypt under the Caliphate & Ottoman Rule (646 - 1800)


Ottoman Iraq refers to the period of the history of Iraq when the region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (1534–1704 and 1831–1920).  Before reforms (1534–1704), Iraq was ruled as Baghdad Eyalet.  Ottoman Iraq was later (1831–1920) divided into the three vilayets (provinces):

  1. Mosul Vilayet
  2. Baghdad Vilayet
  3. Basra Vilayet

Desert Queen by Janet Wallach: Story of Gertrude Bell and her life in Iraq and the Middle East at the end of the Ottoman Empire and during WWI. 

Documents from Ottoman Iraq