The Adobe InDesign workspace will default to the "Essentials" view when you first open the program. This is what that looks like:
The tools are located on the left side, while the right side menu expands on those tools' options. In this screenshot, it is focused on the document properties because there is no tool selected; it would change as soon as you selected something like the Text tool, for example.
The workspace can be changed by clicking on the drop down menu near to the "Adobe Stock" search box, which is close to the minimize and close program options. Another workspace view that may be useful for you is to change it to "Advanced," seen below.
Advanced does add more options to your view overall, but it also changes that right side menu to a horizontal one near the top. This mimics other software such as the Microsoft Office Suite, and might be easier to navigate while learning Adobe InDesign.
As you might've seen, there are many options for your workspace, depending on what you might be using InDesign for. You can find more information about it from this page on Workspace Basics for InDesign, by Adobe.