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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

History 498B: Lincoln, Visual Culture, and Nation Building

A course guide.

1. The Online Catalog

Use the Online Catalog to find books. In the Online Catalog you can search for books by subject, or you identify the location within the Library of a particular book or journal.

Books and journals are organized in the library by subject. Each item is assigned one or more subject headings and a unique call number. Subject headings are standardized terms from the Library of Congress. The call number is based on the Dewey Decimal Classification.

2. I-Share

The UIUC Library is one of 70+ member libraries comprising the I-Share consortium. I-Share libraries share an online catalog, I-Share, and UIUC students, staff, and faculty can borrow directly from the other libraries in the consortium by placing a request through the catalog.

You can also search the UIUC catalog separately. When you use the Library Gateway, this is the first option under “Library Catalogs,” and normally you will want to start by searching UIUC only.

3. Public Libraries

For some topics, you might find useful primary sources in the local public libraries, Urbana Free Library and Champaign Public Library.  For example, here are some titles that might be useful image sources, but which you won't find in the University Library:

  • British Royalty Commemoratives: 19th & 20th Century Royal Events in Britain Illustrated by Commemoratives by Douglas H. Flynn and Alan H. Bolton.
  • Official Price Guide to American Patriotic Memorabilia.
  • The Official Price Guide to Political Memorabilia by Richard Friz.
  • Heads of State: a Fair Street Book by Carl Sferrazza Anthony.
  • Hake's Guide to Presidential Campaign Collectibles : an Illustrated Price Guide to Artifacts from 1789-1988 by Ted Hake.
  • 200 Years of Political Campaign Collectibles by Mark Warda.

These sources are not scholarly, but might be useful in identifying primary source material. For scholarly resources, the best place to begin is almost always the Universit Library.

4. Why Bother with Subject Headings?


It’s true that you can find sources on a topic by doing keyword searches. But if you limit yourself to keyword searching, you are likely to miss important material on your topic that uses other terms. If you only need two or three books, you can probably find what you need by doing keyword searches, but if you are doing historical research, you can’t afford to miss critical material on your topic. For a comprehensive subject search, search with subject headings as well as keywords.

A good way to identify subject headings for a topic is to do a keyword search in the online catalog using terms you think describe the topic and try to identify a few relevant books. Look at the full record for those books to see what subject headings were used, then do another search on those headings.

As a rule of thumb, use fairly broad headings, as well as the specific ones that describe your topic, in order to make sure you haven't inadvertently eliminated relevant material that is contained within works of larger scope. Most likely you will find multiple headings to describe your topic, and you should use all of them. You can narrow your search in the online catalog by combining subject headings (as a phrase) with keywords, using the “Advanced Search” option.

5. Some example subject headings

The list below is far from exhaustive. It is rather intended to give you a sense of how subject headings are structured, and the wide variety of topics they can describe.

  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Art objects.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Assassination--Pictorial works.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Caricatures and cartoons.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Collectibles.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Collectibles--Catalogs.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Collectibles--Periodicals.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Comic books, strips, etc.--Juvenile literature.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Death and burial--Pictorial works.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Exhibitions.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--In motion pictures.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Legends.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Medals.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Monuments.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Monuments--Bibliography.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Museums.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Museums, relics, etc.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Musical settings.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--On postage stamps.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Periodicals.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Pictorial works.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Pictorial works--Catalogs.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Pictorial works--Exhibitions.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Portraits.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Portraits--Catalogs.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Relics.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Songs and music.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Songs and music--Exhibitions.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Statues.
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865--Tomb.
  • Presidents--United States--Medals.
  • Political collectibles--United States.
  • Campaign insignia.
  • Campaign paraphernalia--United States--History.
  • Commemorative coins.
  • Commemorative coins--United States.
  • Commemorative porcelain.
  • Commemorative postage stamps--United States.
  • Commemorative pottery.
  • Presidents--United States--Art.
  • Politics in art.
  • Art--Political aspects.
  • Material culture--United States.
  • Symbolism in art--United States.
  • Symbolism in politics.
  • Symbolism in communication.
  • Nationalism and art--France.
  • Visual communication.
  • Visual communication in art.
  • Visual communication--Social aspects.
  • Visual communication--United States.
  • Visual sociology.

6. Searching the Online Catalog

To search the online catalog, go to the Library Gateway and click on Library Catalog. The online catalog offers both “Quick Search” and “Advanced Search” options. Use “Advanced Search” to identify subject headings on your topic, to combine subject headings (or elements from subject headings) in a Boolean search, or to combine keywords from any part of the record with subject headings to narrow your search.

Use “Quick Search” to browse a subject heading, to search a title when you know exactly how it begins, to locate a work or works by a particular author, or to search by call number for a specific book.

7. Shelf Browsing

In order to browse the shelves, you need to know the “Dewey number” for your topic. At the UIUC Library, we use the Dewey Decimal Classification to organize our collection of more than 10 million items. In Dewey, the first three numbers indicate the main subject, and additional numbers are added after a decimal point to narrow the subject. Books and journals on historical topics are usually classified in the 900s, although much of social history is classified in the 300s.

Once you have identified a few books on your topic by doing a subject search in the online catalog, you can browse the shelf under the same general number(s) to find related works. For example, if you know that a biography of Lincoln is classified under 973.7L63, then you can go to the shelves in the Main Stacks or the History, Philosophy, and Newspaper Library to browse more works on the same subject.

Similarly, you might in your searches discover that books on numismatics are classifed under 737, and that books on medals and medallions are at 737.2 . Books on stamps and seals are at 737.6 . And so forth.

This method of research is especially valuable if you are seeking visual material. The subject heading "Pictorial works", as described above, is a useful way quickly to locate graphical material, but the heading is applied only to works that are chiefly pictorial, and even then it hasn't been used consistently. The point being that the library has far more graphical representations of Lincoln than the hundred odd books labeled as such in the online catalog.

8. Digitized Book Collections

In addition to the 10 million+ printed books available to you here in the Library, we also have a rapidly growing collection of digitized books. Most of these collections support full-text searching.

Internet Archive and Google Books.
Hundreds of thousands of books digitized from the collections of North American and British research libraries, including University of Illinois. These are the two largest digitized book collections that are free to use.
Early English Books Online (EEBO).
Digital facsimiles of almost every book printed in the English-speaking world from 1473-1700.
Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO).
Fully searchable collection of nearly 150,000 English-language works published between 1701 an 1800. Search Tip! Try limiting your search to the “front matter” of books (tables of content, prefaces, forewords) or the “back of book” indexes.
Archive of Americana.
Includes Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639-1800, and Early American Imprints, Series II: Shaw-Shoemaker, 1801-1819, as well as 3 major government documents collections: American State Papers, 1789-1838, U.S. Congressional Serial Set, 1817-1980, and Serial Set Maps, 1817-1980.
ACLS Humanites E-Book.
Over 2,000 in-copyright titles, chosen for their perceived importance to current humanities scholarship.