The American Middle East Institute (AMEI) is an independent, non-profit organization, headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. AMEI is focused on building business, educational and cultural ties between the United States and the countries of the Middle East.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace provides up-to-date information about various countries within the Middle East and policy decisions affecting these countries.
Arab Human Development Reports (AHDRs) engage institutions and citizens in the Arab countries in analysis and discussion about the factors which shape the choices and freedoms available to people across the region, so as to foster understanding and consensus around regional and national development priorities.
The human rights situation seriously deteriorated amid the armed conflict, which intensified in March and continued throughout the year. All parties to the conflict committed war crimes and other serious violations of international law with impunity, including indiscriminate bombing and shelling of civilian areas, killing and injuring thousands of civilians and forcibly displacing over 2.5 million people