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University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)

Appraisal of Therapy Study


  • Were patients randomized to treatments?
  • Was there blinding? Patients, clinicians, study personnel?
  • Were groups similar at the beginning of the trial?
  • Was everyone who was initially enrolled accounted for at the end?
  • Did groups receive equal treatment other than the comparisons?


  • What are overall results?
  • Are results applicable to my patient or population?
  • What was the size of the Treatment effect? - Relative Risk, Odds Ratios, Numbers Needed to Treat
  • Were all relevant outcomes addressed?
  • Are benefits worth cost or potential harm?

Appraising Therapy studies