Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)

Appraisal of Therapy Study


  • Were patients randomized to treatments?
  • Was there blinding? Patients, clinicians, study personnel?
  • Were groups similar at the beginning of the trial?
  • Was everyone who was initially enrolled accounted for at the end?
  • Did groups receive equal treatment other than the comparisons?


  • What are overall results?
  • Are results applicable to my patient or population?
  • What was the size of the Treatment effect? - Relative Risk, Odds Ratios, Numbers Needed to Treat
  • Were all relevant outcomes addressed?
  • Are benefits worth cost or potential harm?

Appraising Therapy studies