Authorship of a manuscript should be discussed and agreed upon early in the writing process. Authorship represents professional and intellectual contributions to a written work and any listed author(s) should make substantive contributions to the manuscript.
Many publishers require authors to delineate roles and contributions to manuscript preparation.
COPE provides key information resources for authors, core policy guidance for editors, notes on the scope of submission guidelines, resources for managing pre- and post-publication authorship disputes, guidance for institutions to manage and support authorship integrity.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has identified four criteria for authorship:
All of the four criteria should be met for authorship. If only some of the above are met, acknowledgement of contributions is appropriate recognition..
From the Council of Science Editors, this guidance to authorship includes common principles and guidelines and addresses common ethical issues related to Authorship.
This guide from the University of North Dakota provide excellent background and guidance regarding authorship.
Infographic from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
The Faculty Council of Harvard Medical School has endorsed the following statement. Although authorship practices differ from one setting to another, and individual situations often require judgment, variation in practices should be within these basic guidelines.
Teixeira da Silva, J.A. (2011), The ethics of collaborative authorship. EMBO reports, 12: 889-893. https://doi.org/10.1038/embor.2011.161
This site was produced by the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching & Learning (CCNMTL) in collaboration with the Columbia University Office for Responsible Conduct of Research. This Responsible Authorship and Peer Review module in the Responsible Conduct of Research series was authored by Robin Eisner, Daniel Vasgird and Ellen Hyman-Browne.