1. The following works were consulted in compiling this glossary: Helen H. Carey, and Judith E. Greenberg, How to Read a Newspaper (New York: Franklin Watts, 1983); Ross Eaman, Historical Dictionary of Journalism (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2009); Bob Franklin, Martin Hamer, Mark Hanna, Marie Kinsey, and John E. Richardson, Key Concepts in Journalism Studies (London: Sage, 2005); Vic Giles, and F.W. Hodgson, Creative Newspaper Design, 2d ed. (Oxford, Eng.: Focal Press, 1996); Linda Hall, ed., Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary, 40th ed., (Detroit: Gale, 2008); Richard M. Harnett, Wirespeak: Codes and Jargon of the News Business (San Mateo, Calif.: Shorebird Press, 1997); Allen Hutt, and Bob James, Newspaper Design Today: A Manual for Professionals (London: Lund Humphries, 1989); Greg Miller, Elizabeth Novickas, and Gerry Labedz, The Daily Illini Design Guide (Champaign, Ill.: Illini Publishing, 1976); Daryl R. Moen, Newspaper Layout and Design: A Team Approach, 4th ed. (Ames, Ia.: Iowa State University Press, 2000), which includes an interesting discussion of the tabloid format in chapter 15; Albert A. Sutton, Design and Makeup of the Newspaper (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1948), which includes useful, if brief, essays on historical developments in newspaper design--see, for example, chapter 11 on the headline.
2. For a discussion of signature versus anonymity in newspapers, see Lucy Maynard Salmon, The Newspaper and the Historian (New York: Oxford University Press, 1923), 65-74.
3. See for example Dan Schiller, Objectivity and the News: The Public Rise of Commercial Journalism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981), 43-45; and Andie Tucher, Froth and Scum: Truth, Beauty, Goodness, and the Ax Murder in America's First Mass Medium (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 12-13.
4. See for example Michael Schudson, Discovering the news: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic Books, 1978); and Schiller, Objectivity.
5. John Nerone, "The Mythology of the Penny Press," Critical Studies in Mass Communication 4 (1987): 376-404.
6. William H. Lyon, The Pioneer Editor in Missouri, 1808-1860 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1965), 93; James Moran, Printing Presses: History and Development from the Fifteenth Century to Modern Times (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 47; Lewis A. Pryor, "The 'Adin Argus': The End of the Hand Press Era of Country Weeklies," Pacific Historian 17, no. 1 (January, 1973): 1-18; Cathleen A. Baker, From the Hand to the Machine: Nineteenth Century American Paper Mediums: Technologies, Materials, and Conservation (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Legacy Press, 2010), 157.